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Antimicrobial Intervention

Validation of Antimicrobial Interventions for Small and Very Small Processors:
A How-To Guide to Develop and Conduct Validations. Click HERE for a copy of this paper.  

Trimming, Hot Water, & Organic Acids


This is a report that was created to give recommendations on a variety of intervention processes used in beef carcass slaughter. The authors also listed a variety of references for the intervention processes and the reduction in microbial growth in table format. The purpose of this report was to give general information on microbiological growth and to offer assistance to plants looking to create or reassess their HACCP plans.


Small Plant Intervention Treatments to Reduce Bacteria on Beef Carcasses at Slaughter. 2003 Buege, D. & Ingham, S. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Animal and Food Sciences (Updated February 2012). Click HERE for a copy of the paper.

Dry Aging, Hot Water Spray, Acetic Acid, & Fresh Bloom™


The following peer-reviewed research paper supports a variety of beef slaughter intervention treatments commonly used by small plants. Processors who use one of the following beef slaughter intervention treatments:  dry-aging, low-pressure hot-water spray, high-pressure hot water spray, 2.5% acetic acid spray or Fresh Bloom™ may be able to use this paper as Supporting Documentation. The Critical Limit summaries below highlight aspects of the published work.

Paper Reference:

Survey of Antimicrobial Effects of Beef Carcass Intervention Treatments in Very Small State-Inspected Slaughter Plants. 2007. Algino, R., Ingham, S.C., & Zhu, J. Journal of Food Science. Vol 72. M173-179. Click HERE for copy of the paper.

Critical Limit Summary:

6-day Dry Aging
Hot Water Spraying
Acetic Acid Spraying
Fresh Bloom™ Spraying

Spray Treatments


Pennsylvania State University, along with Washington State University and Texas Tech University, has developed a video for small plants that describes antimicrobial spray treatments (water and acid washes) that many small plants may find effective.

Click HERE to watch the video.
Click HERE for the Intervention Booklet.

Soak Treatments for Chickens Slaughtered in Mobile Slaughter Operations


The following peer-reviewed research paper supports the use of a 3-minute soak in an ambient-temperature solution of 2% lactic acid to reduce incidence and levels of Salmonella in chickens slaughtered in mobile slaughter operations.  Each carcass was immersed in 15.1 liters of the lactic acid solution for 3 minutes.  The acid solution was changed at least once per 60 birds, when a high level of feathers, blood, or other debris had accumulated. Processors who wish to use this treatment may be able to use this paper as Supporting Documentation.

Paper Reference:

Validation of a 2 percent lactic acid antimicrobial rinse for mobile poultry slaughter operations. 2010. Killinger, K.M., A. Kannan, A.I. Bary, and C.G. Cogger. Journal of Food Protection. Vol 73. 2079-2083. Click HERE for copy of the paper.